Microwaves and Behavior

Dr. Don R. Justesen

Laboratories of Experimental Neuropsychology
Veterans Administration Hospital
Kansas City, Missouri

as published in

The American Psychologist

Journal of the American Psychological Association

Volume 30, March 1975, Number 3

Original article scans relating to voice to skull:

Journal Heading and start of contents
Second contents page, ref to article
Starting page of article, note at bottom
Article page describing technology details

ANTI-V2S (voice to skull) MP3 audio tracks. RIGHT click one or the other links below to download. Then load from your PC to your MP3 player to take anti-V2S multi-radio show masking with you in the community or at work:

6 radios, 24 kbps, mono
6 radios, 64 kbps, stereo
** Please save a COPY to your hard drive for repeated playing.
These audio files are a jumble of 6 radio shows playing simultaneously. They act as a countermeasure against endless voice to skull transmissions by making the voice to skull speaker just one of many audio threads. This allows the target to avoid having their attention forced on to the content of what the perpetrator is saying. The perpetrators have been known to cease voice to skull attacks as their content has only limited effect on a target who uses this countermeasure.

Electronic hobbyists can simulate voice to skull on their workbench:

555 timer chip simulates Sharp's voice to skull speech

Eleanor White's comments on this posting:

This lays to rest any doubts that voice to skull technology does not exist or is "in the future".

This article describes in precise terms how Dr. Joseph C. Sharp and staff transmitted the WORDS for the digits 1 to 10 using a modulated version of an Allan Frey type pulsed microwave transmitter. A detailed description of Frey transmitters can be viewed at:


This article is excerpted from the original.

Related references:

U.S. patent 6,587,729, issued based on Dr. Joseph Sharp's voice to skull success.
Diagram illustrating Sharp's voice conversion method
MEDUSA, a proposal for a military/police voice to skull weapon, ABC News
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request by Donald Friedman, verified current government interest in voice to skull
NASA abstract stating voice to skull works
Government contract to SEA, says same
Notes, patent 6,470,214, a 1994 improvement on voice to skull technology
Article about use of "silent sound" hypnsosis
Concept diagram illustrating "silent sound" coupled to the Joseph Sharp voice to skull technology

Page 396:


The demonstration of sonic transduction of microwave energy by
materials lacking in water LESSENS the likelihood that a
thermohydraulic principle is operating in human perception of the
energy.  Nonetheless, some form of thermoacoustic transduction
probably underlies perception.  If so, it is clear that simple
heating is NOT a sufficient basis for the Frey effect; the
requirement for pulsing of radiations appears to implicate a
thermodynamic principle.

Frey and Messenger (1973) and Guy, Chou, Lin, and Christen- sen
(1975) confirmed that a microwave pulse with a slow rise time is
INeffective in producing an auditory response; only if the rise
time is SHORT, resulting in effect in a square wave with respect to
the leading edge of the envelope of radiated radio-frequency
energy, does the auditory response occur.

[Eleanor White's comment:  This is why we don't "hear" ordinary
radio and TV signals.]

Thus the rate of change (the first derivative) of the waveform of
the pulse is a CRITICAL factor in perception.  Given a
thermodynamic interpretation, it would follow that information can
be encoded in the energy and "communicated" to the "listener".

Communication has in fact been demonstrated.  A. Guy (Note 1), a
skilled telegrapher, arranged for his father, a retired railroad
telegrapher, to operate a key, each closure and opening of which
resulted in a pulse of microwave energy.  By directing the
radiations at his own head, complex mess- ages via the Continental
Morse Code were readily received by Guy.

Sharp and Grove (note 2) found that appropriate modulation of
microwave energy can result in "wireless" and "receiverless"
communication of SPEECH.  The recorded by voice on tape each of the
single-syllable words for digits between 1 and 10.  The electrical
sine-wave analogs of each word were then processed so that each
a brief pulse of microwave energy was triggered.  

[Eleanor White's comment:  This is, in effect a form of what is
called pulse-RATE modulation.]

By radiating themselves with these "voice modulated" microwaves,
Sharp and Grove were READILY able to hear, identify, and
distinguish among the 9 words. [Typo?] The sounds heard were
not unlike those emitted by persons with artificial larynxes.

Communication of more complex words and of sentences was not
attempted because the averaged densities of energy required to
transmit longer messages would approach the current 10 milliwatts
per square centimeter limit of safe exposure.

The capability of communicating directly with a human being by
"receiverless radio" has obvious potentialities both within and
without the clinic.  But the hotly debated and unresolved question
of how much microwave radiation a human being can safely be exposed
to will probably forestall applications within the near future.