However, when all experiences are examined, we find that implants are still in wide use and that removed implants are confiscated, indicating that some covert experiments still use physical implants and the issue is sensitive.
This suggests multiple "tiers of privilege" and different levels of access to mind control technology. Since removed implants are of crucial importance in court cases, publicity, and persuasion, all TIs are interested in following the "implant track" of the larger mind control development problem.
The following article assists us in showing the general public, many of whom are not aware radio frequency in-body implants even exist, that at least the MEANS for human implantation are now readily available and unclassified.
TELEMETRY IS COMING OF AGE Extract from "Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine" March 1983 by Dean C. Jutter, Ph.D., Assistant Professor in Biomedical Engineering, at Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Wen H. Ko, Ph.D. and Thomas M. Spear, B.S. at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio and Dr. Stuart Mackay Biomedical telemetry is a special area of biomedical instrumentation that permits transmission of physiologic information from an often inaccessible location to a remote monitoring site. The goal of biotelemetry include the capability for monitoring humans and animals with minimum restraint and to provide faithful reproduction of the transmitted data. Although some telemetry of physiologic information is done via telephone lines, the majority is carried via radio link. The encoding of physiologic data into some unique format is common to all biotelemetry systems. The transmitting unit can be carried outside the monitored subject as a backpack unit or can be implanted within the subject's body after appropriate miniaturization and sealing against body fluid. Animals reported to have been monitored with biotelemetry include cockroaches, lizards, fish, snakes, seals, birds, elk, giraffes, dolphins, horses, and turtles in the wild and dogs, cats, rats, rabbits, monkeys, and baboons in the laboratory. In This Special Section Stuart Mackay was in biotelemetry from the very beginning and gives us a glimpse of the early developments and evolution of the field. Dr. Mackay's message is replete with examples and applications to an impressively wide variety of animal species. Miniature and micropower are two cornerstones of modern biotelemetry design and construction. Improvements in these areas have closely paralleled the evolution of semiconductor and microcircuit technologies. He has been involved with reliable, stable integrated sensors and biotelemeters on microcircuit designs and implementations in recent years. The works is truly state-of-the-art. Eli Fromm has provided an example of a "poor man's" hybrid biotelemeter to illustrate that some rather sophisticated circuit operations can be done on a low budget and without extensive microcircuit capabilities. His comments focus on a design for a two channel, FM-FM formatted implanted biotelemeter for multiple channel monitoring using resistance type transducers. Biomedical telemetry like many other things began as a "laboratory curiosity" but has evolved to a useful, reliable tool for data gathering. It has become an important, often complex, part of physiologic monitoring, but it also can be exciting and a lot of fun. The purpose of biomedical telemetry is to monitor or study animals and humans with minimal disturbance to their normal activity and to explore otherwise inaccessible parts of the body. It covers a variety of situations. Animal subjects range in size from bees to whales, useful transmission distances vary from a centimeter to a few thousand kilometers and transmission times from a few minutes to a few years to the life of the subject; frequencies range from 40 kHz to a few hundred megahertz; subjects range from trees to humans and include animals flying, burrowing in the ground now and swimming in fresh or salt water; transmitters can be implanted surgically, swallowed, inserted through other normal body openings, or carried externally; power can be induced inward for tissue stimulation to energize transmitters and to produce mechanical motions; transmitters monitor safety of workers in hazardous situations, carry signals from sterile regions, mark animals with darts, and enhance or reduce reproduction data; they have been used during a variety of situations including sleeping, loving, working, eating, lecturing, and diving. All this can be done with biomedical telemetry without subject's disturbance. (Snips) In 1903 Einthoven transmitted electrocardiogram voltage over Leiden Telephone System wires about a mile to a string galvanometer. In 1921 Winters transmitted heart sounds over a marine radio link as a demonstration for ships without a physician. External transmitters of various signals evolved as electronic methods evolved to produce smaller transmitters. Later, several groups inserted small coils and electrodes into the skulls of animals so alternating currents could be induced for a primitive form of telestimulation. The idea of transmitting signals from within the body came to me in 1946 when uncertainty about the pressure in the human bladder during voiding led to the suggestion of placing a radio transmitter there. This was done later when transistors were invented. Transmitting Signals The transmission of signals from within a subject was a technique that evolved slowly. On July 2, 1952 William Shockley and Bell Labs sent me four experimental point-contact transistors, which were difficult to power in a small package. (Junction transistors were only available for military use.) Thus, another approach was developed to provide for the totally passive transmission of information. Figure 2 is taken from Markevitch's 1954 undergraduate research report. The tuned circuit could be placed in the mouth and its frequency monitored from outside the face by the grid-dip meter. Thus the circuits tested by Markevitch showed that signals could be transmitted through the tissues of the body from quite small coils placed within the body. (Snips - history of biomedical transmitted throughout the medical world) Surgical implants have been used in rather intricate ways; in some cases, animals are born with functioning transmitters already in them. The researcher just needs to collect data rather than monitor instantaneous information (such as for a diver or astronaut), telemetry can be replaced by recording. Researchers can record signals by variable electroplating by radioactive light variable darkening film, by magnetic tape, and most recently, by semiconductor memories. Recorders as well as telemetry transmitters can be self-detaching for later recovery. (Snips) Techniques and applications of these methods continue to expand, limited only by the imagination of researchers. The descriptions and examples above suggest that, although it is not absolutely clear when biomedical telemetry started the formative years are still in progress and are limited only by the imagination of the investigators using new technologies as they evolve. The design of a telemeter (for either backpack or implanted use) is dictated by size, cost, circuit complexity, power requirements (and needed operational lifetime), transducers, the nature of the data to be transmitted, and performance. The endoradiosonde and radio pill telemeters were perfected and used extensively in the early days of biotelemetry by Stuart Mackay in a wide variety of animal species. Radio transmission is a more common way to send composite SCO signals than telephone lines. Both amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated carriers have been used in biotelemetry and are designated FM-AM and FM-FM. This shorthand biotelemetry indicates the type of encoding and the type of modulation of the radio carrier respectively. Although FM-AM has been used, FM-FM systems have been more popular because the overall performance expected of a FM radio link is better. Also, FM radio frequency oscillators are easy to implement with a single transistor, typically in a Copitts configuration. FM-FM biotelemeters have been popular in a variety of restraint-free monitoring studies. For example, body temperature in the dog, core temperature in rats, diurnal temperature variations in rabbits, thermo regulation and drug response in humans, and ovulation detection in monkeys have been reported - all using inexpensive thermistor transducers with these telemeters. Gait studies in humans, ECG, EEG, ZPG, blood pressure, pH, and oviductal contractile forces in the monkey also have been telemetered with FM-FM systems. Fortunately, there are a sufficient number of frequencies available in the U.S. for biotelemetry radio transmission, and there are two bands of frequencies specifically allocated to biomedical telemetry by the Federal Communications Commission. In this country, there are no restrictions placed on the modulation format or stability of transmitters as long as bandwidth and in-band requirements are met. Commercially made biotelemetry systems must be FCC type approved, but custom-made devices used in schools and universities need not be type approved, but they should comply with FCC rules and regulations - Part 15, 215,177(C). In either case, the qualities regulated are the field strength, carrier frequency, bandwidth, and spurious emissions 9emissions outside the assigned frequency band that might interfere with other services.) Radio emissions are regulated differently in other countries, and regulating organizations should be contacted appropriately. Biomedical data has been telemetered through virtually every medium between two sites including air, space, water, and biologic tissue, using a variety of modulated energy forms like electromagnetic waves, light, and ultrasound. Radio frequency energy is the most commonly used to link between biotelemeter and receiver. It is now common use to send data between two sites via satellite. Biomedical telemetry has been around for about 30 years and has become a useful tool for obtaining restraint-free physiological data from a broad spectrum of animal species and of monitoring settings. The described techniqu4s for biotelemeter circuit design and construction are now ell in place, and it seems likely that future development will be in the further miniaturization and integration of biotelemeters and transducers, improved power sources and improved packaging. (Snips) Implantable transducers. With this type of package, the biomaterial must meet two basic requirements. First, it must protect the device from the influx of body fluids; second, it should provide minimal interference with the transduction of the desired signal. In packaging most biomedical transducers, an insulating conformal layer is deposited onto the device - in particular, over electrically conductive and potentially corrosive areas. The material (usually an adhesive rubber or resin) provides a thin, but tough, film capable of guarding against environmental effects. Also, foreign material or bacteria may remain on objects if the parts are not adequately cleaned beforehand. A minimal weight is required for any implantable package. The pressure (amplitude, duration, etc), produced by the implant on the surrounding tissue may alter the blood circulation at the implant site, possibly affecting tissue reaction. One reason titanium is used commonly as an implantable metal is because it possesses a low specific gravity and an excellent strength-to-weight ratio compared to other metals such as tantalum, tungsten, and stainless steel. Blunt corners and sharp edges should be eliminated because they irritate tissues locally. A streamlined contour is desirable. Implant location and implant technique also influences the local reaction at the site. Biomedical frequency allocation in the United States for Research and Patient Monitoring Frequency MHz Bandwidth kHz Field Strength uV/m Out of Band Transmitter Requirements (maximum) 38-41 200 10 at 15 m. 10 uV/m at 3 m 88-108 200 50 at 15 m. 40 uV/m at 3 m 174-216 200 150 at 30 m. 15 uV/m at 30 m
ALPHABETICAL Site Index
SUBJECT Site Index